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Energy Management of PV Fuel Cell and Battery System in MATLAB

Energy Management of PV Fuel Cell and Battery System in MATLAB

In the quest for sustainable energy solutions, the integration of renewable sources like solar power, battery storage, and fuel cells has become paramount. This blog post explores a MATLAB simulation model that combines these elements to create an efficient and dynamic energy management system.

Solar PV System: 

The model begins with a solar photovoltaic (PV) system consisting of eight panels, each rated at 250 watts. The total power output of 2,000 watts is achieved by connecting these panels in series, resulting in a voltage of approximately 245.6 volts. A boost converter, controlled by the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPT) algorithm, optimizes the power generated by adjusting the duty cycle.

Battery Integration: 

The battery system, with a nominal voltage of 300 volts and 48 amp-hours, is connected to the DC bus via a bidirectional converter. The converter is controlled to maintain a constant voltage of 400 volts and regulate the charging and discharging currents based on a proportional-integral (PI) controller.

Fuel Cell Operation: 

A fuel cell with a nominal rating of 4.4 kW, comes into play when the power from the PV system is less than 600 watts and the state of charge (SoC) of the battery is less than 30%. The fuel cells, controlled by a current control method, supply power to both DC and AC loads.

Inverter and Load Control: 

A single-phase inverter, connected to an LC filter, feeds power to an AC load. The inverter is controlled using the current control strategy, ensuring seamless integration with the AC load. The model also incorporates conditions for the fuel cell to supply power, depending on the PV power and battery SoC.

Results and Analysis: 

The simulation dynamically adjusts parameters such as radiation levels to showcase the responsiveness of the system. Visualizations of PV power, battery status, fuel cell operation, and load characteristics provide insights into the system's performance under varying conditions.


The MATLAB simulation model effectively demonstrates the integration of solar PV, battery storage, and fuel cell technologies in a dynamic and responsive energy management system. Such simulations play a crucial role in optimizing renewable energy solutions for real-world applications.

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